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Dialysis is a medical treatment used to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so adequately. The treatment involves the use of a special machine that filters the blood to remove the waste products and excess fluid. There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In hemodialysis, the patient’s blood is filtered through an external machine called a dialyzer, which uses a semipermeable membrane to filter out the waste products and excess fluid. The blood is then returned to the patient’s body. In peritoneal dialysis, a special fluid called dialysate is infused into the patient’s abdomen through a catheter. The peritoneal membrane lining the abdominal cavity acts as the semipermeable membrane, and waste products and excess fluid from the blood pass through the membrane and into the dialysate. The patient then drains the used dialysate and replaces it with fresh fluid. Dialysis is typically recommended for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a condition in which the kidneys have lost 85-90% of their function, and cannot remove waste and excess fluid from the body. Dialysis may also be used for patients with acute kidney injury or other conditions that cause kidney failure.